Earliest, all of our remedy for BGS and you can SSWs assumes panmixia and you will a constant energetic inhabitants proportions

In common with other solutions to quoting the new variables out-of self-confident options, i’ve produced several literally unlikely assumptions. Given that BGS seems to have apparently nothing affect the ? and p prices (Desk 1), a portion of the question is the outcome out of demographic points into the SSW estimates. Introduction of those difficulties in the suggestions for estimating options details try a difficult state. But not, we keep in mind that new wide spread to a high frequency from an excellent good mutation into the a people spread over a-two-dimensional ecosystem is much reduced than in good panmictic society, which implies that there is much more opportunity for recombination so you’re able to dilute the results from SSWs than just that have panmixia (47). This action would thus lead to all of our ? estimates to be shorter compared to the correct opinions, together with p quotes as huge.

Content and methods

Second, we have assumed “hard” sweeps, based on unique mutations, rather than “soft sweeps” based on recurrent mutations or mutations arising from standing variation (48). If soft sweeps are prevalent in Drosophila, as has recently been argued (49), then the same pattern of bias as from a subdivided population would arise (50, 51). (Note, however, that gene conversion of a favored mutation onto an ancestral haplotype could generate the appearance of a soft sweep.) The opposite would apply to incomplete sweeps (52), if their incidence in a gene is correlated with its KA value. These were omitted from our models because they do not affect KA. However, the lack of evidence for intermediate-frequency NS and synonymous variants in pooled site frequency spectra for the Rwandan population of D. melanogaster, as seen in figure 5 of ref. 33, suggests that incomplete sweeps are relatively infrequent in this population. If favorable mutations do not arise as single events, the estimates of the proportions of favorable mutations are likely to be overestimated as well.

These considerations mean that the estimates of the parameters of positive selection obtained in this and previous studies need to be treated with caution, and will no doubt be revised with future improvements in inference procedures. It seems clear, however, that hitchhiking effects greatly reduce neutral or nearly neutral sequence diversity in genes in normally recombining regions of the Drosophila genome. There is increasing evidence that this is also true for many other organisms (1, 3). Such processes have important implications for attempts to estimate demographic parameters, which usually ignore these complications, as has been pointed out before (53 ? ? –56). This is especially important when selection at linked sites distorts gene genealogies and hence site frequency spectra, because these are the main basis for inferring demographic parameters. There is evidence from our unbinned data for mel-yak that KA is weakly positively correlated with the proportion of singletons at synonymous sites (Spearman partial rank correlation, ? = 0.044, P = 0.002), consistent with increased distortions of the frequency spectra caused by hitchhiking in genes with large KA, as was previously found by Andolfatto (15). The problem of relating the magnitude of these effects to the BGS and SSW models remains to be explored.

Number 1 Study Analyses.

We used polymorphism data for coding sequences of 7,099 autosomal genes, using 17 haploid genomes from the Gikongoro (Rwanda) population of Drosophila melanogaster provided by the Drosophila Population Genomics Project 2 (57), with Drosophila yakuba as an outgroup. The coding sequence data were filtered and analyzed as described in materials and methods in ref. 19. We excluded Fontana escort reviews 225 genes located in the autosomal heterochromatic regions and on chromosome 4, where crossing over is absent (19, 58). We obtained diversity and divergence statistics for synonymous and NS sites, as well as for 5?- and 3?-YouTRs for D. melanogaster genes with UTR annotations. For the analyses of UTRs, we followed the annotations of Flybase, version 5.33, masking any UTRs included in coding sequences and excluding UTRs with no available sequence in the outgroup, leaving a dataset of 5,992 genes with 3?- and/or 5?-UTRs. After applying a Kimura two-parameter correction (59), the mean level of divergence of UTR sequences between species, KU, was 0.10, which is intermediate between the mean values for NS sites (KA = 0.038) and synonymous sites (KS = 0.262).

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